“The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country…We are governed, our minds molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of…Our invisible governors are, in many cases, unaware of their fellow members in the inner cabinet…in almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics and business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by a relatively small number of persons…who understand the mental patterns and social processes of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind, who harness old social forces, and contrive new ways to bind and guide the world. (Edward Bernays)
“If we understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will without their knowing about it? The recent practice of propaganda has proved that it is possible, at least up to a certain point and within certain limits.” Edward Bernays
Even with decreasing costs of transport and communications globally, imperial powers prefer the more distant and softer forms of power (the “velvet glove”) over the more direct, localized and overtly brutal forms of hard power (the “iron fist”). This is not only due to the fact that imperial overreach and high costs of standing foreign bases and settlements overseas create fiscal and other crises within and throughout the metropolitan colonial and imperial centers, but, also, because the contradictions are more intense and naked, and the real exploitative nature and real winners and losers of imperial or colonial rule, are much clearer and naked with the more direct and brutal forms of hard power projections. The inevitable “collateral damage” on non-combatants that comes inexorably with hard power projections often serve to recruit rather than dampen, resistance to foreign domination and is not consistent with winning “hearts and minds” in the peripheries.
Many of the neoconservatives, and neoliberals too, see World War III as a global war between systems and ideologies for “Hearts and Minds”; and, according to them, it has been underway since around 1980. According to these forces, socialism and communism are “existential threats” to capitalism and what they euphemistically call “democracy”. The neoconservatives and neoliberals too, see this global war between systems and their respective ideologies as a long and protracted one that will only end with the final and irreversible “triumph” of capitalism over socialism, and Western-style political pluralism, which they equate with “democracy” over single-party rule. They understand very well that the types of people, institutions, relations, and values necessary for socialist construction and its defense are very different than those necessary for the “social capital” and expanded reproduction of capitalism on a global scale (ultra-individualism, mass consumerism, selfishness, materialism, inability to delay gratification, get-rich-quick, etc).
Missionaries, then as today, operating under various covers and fronts , including as “international educators”, were sent in as subcontractors in genocide and front men (and women) for colonial and imperial power projections and control . They followed the typical pattern captured in the phrase common among Indigenous Peoples of the Americas: “The 3-B system” or “Bible, Buck (dollar) and Bullet”. First the Bible, accompanied or followed by commercial interests, followed by military presences (troops and support bases) to facilitate more penetration and protect that which has occurred. The British, like many of their missionaries, understood, like the Roman Emperor Constantine who established Christianity as the dominant religion of the Roman Empire at the Council of Nicaea in the early fourth century AD, that in destroying existing indigenous institutions (“national patterns”) and replacing them with others, starting with, and then gradually co-opting, the existing institutions, such as sacred pagan holidays and rituals, was far more effective in ultimately smashing them and replacing them with others than in putting them directly and openly under siege . This meant that those seeking to smash the indigenous “national patterns” had to understand them, as well as local indigenous languages and/or had to hire, indoctrinate and train locals to do their bidding for them under various fronts and disguises .
Not all of the cultural and linguistic study and exchange programs are benign . In several of his books, former “economic hit man” (who worked for the U.S. National Security Agency helping to lure poor nations and despotic regimes into impossible-to-escape debt peonage) John Perkins discusses the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) now called SIL International, an ultra-conservative Christian evangelical group in the U.S. that specializes in the documentation, study of and training in rare and sometimes near-extinct Indigenous languages. They not only hold contracts to train Western intelligence services in these rare languages, they also allegedly train large transnational companies, like oil companies, to penetrate indigenous lands and cultures to force or co-opt them to turn over resource-rich lands and their resources to foreign companies by offering to move them to missionary reservations and to provide food, medicines and clothing in return for deeds to their lands. They are also involved in translations of the Bible into rare and near-extinct languages. Further, when one learns a new language, the specific constructs, terms, sources, vocabulary that one is exposed to and learns, along with those one is not exposed to and does not learn, serve to shape the paradigms, values, levels of useful knowledge and perspectives of that person learning with feedback effects on that person’s ideology, meanings of words and perspectives on various issues and interests even when operating in his or her own native language and in his or her own culture.
Leading “experts” with big names from prestigious educational institutions in the West, are brought in to the peripheries and marketed as if they were like any other commodity. Often, when one examines their work, especially in the social sciences and arts, their work is really quite pedestrian and not at all “advanced” from what scholars in the peripheries are doing. But there is the power of branding and “brand names” (individuals and institutions) that allow them to be invited and to form relationships and associations to serve imperial interests well into the future. They also act as “attractors” to and “spotters”, and even “recruiters” of young scholars of the peripheries who have heard of them by reputation as authors of texts or touted research, or as individuals with impressive titles and credentials and who seek their patronage to secure their own futures, often in the imperial centers to which they hope to emigrate, work and where increasing percentages remain . They are agents of brain drains that loot some of the most skilled and talented to the metropolitan centers of the Imperium.
This is especially fertile ground as many teachers and researchers are, or feel, overworked, and thus hardware and software, marketed as packaged, glossy, structured, “state-of-the-art”, prestigious “brand name”, “easy-to-use-and-apply”, “labor-saving” and comprehensive, plus from the West and thus supposedly “superior” and “advanced”, are easily induced to adopt and use these tools marketed as labor-saving but in essence carriers of imperial culture and interests. Young graduate students, with heavy workloads, often assigned to teach undergraduate and foundational courses in various academic disciplines, are especially targeted by these marketing approaches. Plus, built into some of the hardware and software being exported are “backdoors” that allow surveillance of computers and their connections and applications from a distance. In addition, one of the oldest tricks in marketing is to design and price hardware and software to as to cause dependence on critical supporting services and complementary inputs from abroad.
 Bernays, Edward, “Propaganda”, Ig Books, Brooklyn, NY, 1928 and 2005 pp. 37-38; Edward Bernays, along with Walter Lippman were “credited” with being the pioneers of and leading contributors to the “science” of techniques of modern propaganda, advertising and persuasion employed in modern international education. Bernays took the approach that the most effective persuasion and propaganda was that which created the set of values, beliefs and tastes that led a person to believe that his choices were his own and not influenced by others. Bernays sought to create advertising and other forms of propaganda and persuasion that would not cause a person to jump up and go to a store to buy a particular product or brand, but that would cause him to be in a situation that demanded a particular product that would lead that person to the product that would then recommend itself. Bernays never really addressed the naked contradictions in his own statement vis-à-vis having a protecting a “democratic society” on the one hand, and, or versus, the ongoing and conscious “manipulation” of the masses by hidden elites on the other hand.
 “Hard Power” refers to instruments of covert and overt force and direct coercion. These may include war, military power, embargos, proxy military forces, denial of aid, sanctions, coercive diplomacy, bribery, debt peonage, alliances, and various kinds of covert operations. “Soft Power”, a term attributed to Joseph Nye of Harvard University, but actually originating with Chinese philosophers like Lao-tzu, refers to the power that comes from attraction and cooptation: the attractiveness of dominant economic, political, cultural, ideological and legal practices, relations, institutions and systems of one social formation acting to influence, draw in and co-opt the citizens, dynamics and trajectories of another targeted social formation. The new term “Smart Power” is now being touted by the Obama Administration to refer to the “optimum” combinations of hard and soft power that best achieve imperial strategic objectives which include the disguise of hard and soft power projections, their effects and in whose service (class interests) they are employed. Soft power can be and is used by non-imperial and socialist social formations powers such as China for ostensibly hegemonic purposes (see Kurlantzick, Joshua, “Charm Offensive: How China's Soft Power is Transforming the World”, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2007 an. analysis of China's use of soft power to gain influence in the world's political arenas. and Young Nam Cho and Jong Ho Jeong, "China's Soft Power," Asia Survey,48,3,pp 453–72)
 In the West, particularly in the U.S., all sorts of new approaches and frontiers of “Brain Science” are being explored (by neurobiologists, cognitive psychologists, experimental psychologists, anthropologists, economists and biochemists), with the intent of finding new, more effective and more subliminal neuro-physiological mechanisms that can be used for more effective persuasion, mind control, interrogation, indoctrination, propaganda, marketing, political campaigns and “manufactured consent”. They are looking for both the universal and culturally-specific neuro structures, connections (synapses) triggers and physiological responses associated with various stimuli (colors, patterns, words, ideas, images, humor, etc) as they typically, and often subliminally excite or inhibit various neuro structures, chemicals (e.g. nor epinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, histamine) , and processes associated with pleasure, pain, fear, familiarity, fight-or-flight, and other responses (e.g. cortico plasticity, neurogenesis, neural differentiation).Their work is increasingly being incorporated into marketing, design and content of educational hardware and software, textbooks, political campaigns. For an overview see: Gardner, Daniel “The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates Your Brain”, Plume Books, N.Y. 2009; Shermer, Michael “The Mind of the Market: How Biology and Psychology Shape our Economic Lives”, Holt Books, N.Y. 2008 and “The Science of Good and Evil: Why People Cheat, Gossip, Care, Share, and Follow the Golden Rule”, Holt Books, N.Y. 2004; Ariely, Dan “Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces that Shape our Decisions; Revised Edition”, Harper Books, N.Y. 2009.
 As Napoleon Bonaparte put it: “History is merely the fable that has been agreed upon”.
 The term “World War III” was allegedly coined by Pak Bo Hi, formerly of the South Korean CIA (KCIA) and a close lieutenant of the cult leader Moon Sun Myung, head of the so-called Unification Church, a Theo-fascist cult with extensive resources and a global reach through various fronts, who characterized “World War III” as a global war, between systems and ideologies, socialism versus capitalism, as a protracted global war, for “hearts and minds”.
 By “existential threat” it is meant that a certain system or ideology is deemed a strategic threat merely by its existence even without any covert or overt acts of aggression or threats by that system or ideology against others. Those who use this concept of “existential threat” understand, and intend, that when systems, values and institutions of one system outperform those of another in terms of what matters most to the masses, they can and do act as “attractors” (soft power) of people and allegiances to new systems away from others. They intend that capitalism, their versions of Western “culture” and nominal political pluralism (equated with “real democracy”), will act as attractors of the allegiances of peoples away from socialism or any forms of indigenous sovereignty, self-determination and independence. Even as China has been a leading creditor of the U.S., and even as China has not given signs of any hegemonic intentions or hostility against the U.S., even as China has been a victim of terrorism including by Al Qaeda, Bob Woodward, in his book “Plan of Attack”, Simon and Schuster, N.Y. 2004: “When all the intelligence was sorted, weighed and analyzed, Tenet [then head of CIA] and Pavitt agreed there were three major threats to American national security. One was Osama bin Laden and his Al Qaeda terrorist network…A second major threat was the increasing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, WMD—chemical, biological and nuclear…The third was the rise of China, especially its military, but that problem was five to fifteen years away” (p. 12) It is quite clear that the policy makers in the centers of the U.S. Imperium do not believe in the peaceful competition yet coexistence of differing socioeconomic and politico-legal systems and regard the mere existence of socialism anywhere as a threat.
 The term “social capital” has come back into new usage and meaning relative to its origins. Since in mainstream economics “capital” means anything that has been produced and used to produce something else, then physical capital refers to tools and the like, human capital to human skills, education and experience, and social capital refers to institutions that foster hope, trust, social cohesion, cooperation and buying into the dominant system and its core values and relationships. Among neoclassical economists they now use the term to refer to relationships of reciprocity (you do for me and I return the favor and we both maximize our individual utility functions by appearing to cooperate, yet we remain, it is alleged, “individualist maximizers”). Education is not only central to and part of the definition of human capital, it is essential to the development, content and protection of the social capital of systems as well.
 Lemkin, Raphael, “Axis Control in Occupied Europe”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, D.C. 1944; Genocide is defined as: ...any of the following acts committed with any intent to destroy in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. By “national pattern” it is meant the dominant institutions, cultures, relations, power structures, systems of governance and traditions of a given nation.
 Freedom of religion is protected by the Constitution of China; but cult practices and intentions are not and for good reasons. Although some mainstream religions like Roman Catholicism have powerful cults like “Opus Dei” within them, mainstream religions can be differentiated from cults in that typically cults, unlike the mainstream religious denominations: a) have closed and layered dogma with followers allowed to know true dogma and intentions of the cult only in stages according to how trusted the followers are; b) covert, coercive and deceptive recruitment practices; c) internal controls for monitoring and deterring exits of members; d) various forms of calculated covert and overt mind control and programming; e) hegemonic intentions and intolerance for the very levels of diversity of thought and religious pluralism that they demand for themselves; f) coerced isolation from family members and friends not in the cult; g) covert rituals and practices and retribution against those who reveal them; h) hidden agenda and ultimate objectives known only to trusted insiders; i) a charismatic and autocratic leader with absolute, unquestioned and unquestionable authority. An example of covert intentions from one of the “sacred texts” of the Mormons:
"You will see the constitution of the United States almost destroyed. It will hang like a thread...A terrible revolution will take place in the land of America...[T]he land will be left without a Supreme Government...[Mormonism] will have gathered strength, sending out Elders to gather the honest in heart...to stand by the Constitution of the United States...In these days...God will set up a Kingdom, never to be thrown down...[T]he whole of America will be made the Zion of God." (Joseph Smith, May, 6, 1843, founder of Mormonism, quoted in "One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church" by Richard Abanes, Four Walls Eight Windows Press, NY. 2002, p xvi)
"Listeners of KSL Radio's "The Doug Wright Show" were surprised on November 9, 1999 when Wright's guest, Republican Senator Orrin Hatch (a devout Mormon) quoted the infamous "White Horse" prophecy. The prediction by Mormonism's founder, Joseph Smith, contains what has always been the Mormon American Dream--i.e. the transformation of the U.S. government into a Mormon-ruled theocracy divinely ordained 'not only to direct the political affairs of the Mormon community, but eventually those of the United States and ultimately the world." (Ibid.p.xvii)
 This pattern continues today with many “mainstream” religious denominations and some cults as well, continue to offer educational exchanges and programs that act as fronts for economic, political, cultural, military and intelligence power projections from metropolitan centers of the Imperium to the targeted regions of the periphery. Their names often change as they are exposed, but some like the Mormons, Scientology, the Unification Church under Moon Sun Myung, Falun Gong, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Lyndon LaRouche, wealthy, virulently anti-communist, ultra-conservative, pro-capitalist, and often heavily connected with or used by Western intelligence services, retain their parent organizational names and operate through fronts with “high-sounding” names, to conceal their true origins and intentions. Some organizations like the Cult Awareness Network (CAN) have gone bankrupt and have been taken over by cults themselves (Scientology) but still give some useful lists of currently operating cults (their competitors) and others that have taken over what the Cult Awareness Network used to do before being taken over (International Cultic Studies Association or ICSA http://www.factnet.org/cris_org.htm).%20These cults, along with “mainstream” religious denominations, mostly Protestant and Evangelical, are increasingly involved in teacher exchanges and “Teaching English Abroad” programs to nations hungry for mass education in English the lingua-franca of global politics, culture and economics; they not only raise money for their respective institutions, but act as spotters for local men and women to be recruited as local agents for them as well as to serve as agents for foreign intelligence services and commercial interests.
 The exception to this pattern of practices was the British and U.S. systems of Indian Residential and Board Schools in the U.S. and Canada where they had a slogan that captured the two phases of genocide referred to by Lemkin: “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”. In these cases, “education” meant a direct, violent, overt and unapologetic assault on the “national patterns” of the Indigenous nations with only marginal or ersatz attempts to impose any “national pattern” or integrate Indigenous peoples into the dominant “national pattern” of the colonizing or imperial powers. See Churchill, Ward, “Kill the Indian, Save the Man: The Genocidal Impact of American Residential Schools”, City Lights Press, San Francisco, CA, 2004.
 In the context of China, Martin Jacques reports: “Until 1900 the idea of reform was virtually always articulated within a Confucian framework—with an insistence on the distinction between Chinese ‘essence’ and Western ‘method’ (or, in the famous phrase of Zhang Zidong (1837-1909) ‘Chinese learning for the essential principles, Western learning for the practical applications.’) Jacques, Martin “When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order”, Penguin Press, N.Y. p.90; Among the foreign influenced uprisings in Chinese history, the Taiping Uprising (1850-64) that cost an estimated 20 to 40 million lives, was according to the historian Paul Cohen, guided by an ideology that was a ‘bizarre alchemy of evangelical Christianity, primitive communism, sexual Puritanism and Confucian utopianism’. (Quoted in Jacques, Martin, Ibid. p.87).
 This was taken from the internal bbs system of one of the top universities of China in 2006 where significant changes were made after this message, from a former teacher of English left this message: From the bbs system at [deleted] University, China:
 Perkins, John “Confessions of an Economic Hit Man”, Plume Books, N.Y. 2006, pp. 166-67, 183, 184;
 Increasing percentages of foreign students in the West are choosing to remain to live and even state their original intention was to emigrate permanently from their countries of origin in seeking foreign studies opportunities. “After a Brief Decline, Foreign Ph.D. Graduates are Staying in the U.S. at Near-record Levels”, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, February 3, 2010, http://orise.orau.gov/news/releases/2010/fy10-20.htm
 NGOs are typically broken down into: BINGOS (Business-friendly International NGOs); CSOs (Civil Society); DONGOs (Donor-organized); ENGOs (Environmentalists); GONGOs (Government-operated); INGOs (International like Oxfam); QUANGOs (quasi-autonomous); TANGOs (technical assistance); GSOs (Grass-roots support); MANGOs (market advocacy); CHARDS (Community health and development); They are not subject to international law as are states and thus often act as proxies for governments.
 These foundations, institutes and sources of “expertise” have a powerful influence in generating and maintaining libraries, data bases, metrics, categories and constructs, and research connections that are used by various governments and media. With the megaphone effect that comes from well-endowed patronage, they take on the aura of the only official and “reliable” data and research bases from which to draw. Their publications are typically glossy, rich in graphics and other visuals that sometimes hide meager content as well as rhetorical intentions, as they play their roles in generating the “acceptable” metrics (categories, indicators and methodologies) by which the respective and relative performances of competing systems, governments and their policies are measured and judged. Those who can set the systems of measurement not only affect what is or is not being measured, but also they affect the actual values of the measurements and outcomes of those measurements.
 See “New Study Finds U.S. Math Students Consistently Behind Their Peers Around the World”, American Institutes of Research, November, 2005; http://www.air.org/news/documents/Release200511math.htm; “U.S. Teens Trail Peers Around World on Math-Science Test”, by Maria Glod, Washington Post, December 5, 2007, http://www.air.org/news/documents/Release200511math.htm; “International Test Scores: Poor U.S. Test Scores Tied to Weak Curriculum” by Pascal D. Forgione, http://4brevard.com/choice/international-test-scores.htm; “Between 1980 and 2000, the percentage of Ph.D. scientists and engineers employed in the United States who were born abroad has increased from 24% to 37%. The current percentage of Ph.D. physicists is about 45%; for engineers, the figure is over 50%. One fourth of the engineering faculty members at U.S. universities were born abroad. Between 1990 and 2004, over one third of Nobel Prizes in the United States were awarded to foreign-born scientists. One third of all U.S. Ph.D.s in science and engineering are now awarded to foreign born graduate students.” Wulf, William A. “The Importance of Foreign-born Scientists and Engineers to the Security of the United States”, statement to the U.S. House of Representatives, September 15, 2005.
 In my classes I do an exercise on the first day of class to illustrate ideological framing and manipulation. I ask my students, who are seeing their textbook for the first time, how, not knowing anything about the author of the text, they could judge the likely ideology and rhetorical intentions of the author. Usually I get answers like “from the preface” or “from the biography of the author.” I then ask them to look in the subject index of the text and given them a list of constructs to look for: imperialism, neo-imperialism, racism, sexism, colonialism, neo-colonialism, genocide, etc. I then ask the students if they can define these terms and if they have anything to do with economics. I then ask them that if they cannot yet define these terms, how will they ever learn them if they have been omitted from the text? Attitudes, agenda, expectations, values and allegiances can be as effectively shaped, perhaps more so, by what is carefully omitted from examination as what is examined even from an ideologically jaundiced perspective.
 See: Soft Power and US Foreign Policy: Theoretical, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives, edited by Parmar, Inderjeet and Cox, Michael Routledge, 2010; Lukes, Steven "Power and the Battle for Hearts and Minds: on the Bluntness of Soft Power," in Berenskoetter, Felix and Williams, M.J. eds. Power in World Politics, Routledge, 2007; Mattern, Janice Bially "Why Soft Power Is Not So Soft," in Berenskoetter and Williams; Nye, Joseph “The Powers to Lead”, NY Oxford University Press, 2008; and “Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics, N.Y.; Fraser, Matthew, “Weapons of Mass Distraction: Soft Power and American Empire”, St. Martin’s Press, N.Y. 2005).
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2. Harvey, David “The New Imperialism”, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2003
3. Shermer, Michael “The Science of Good and Evil”, Holt Books, NY, 2004 and “The Mind of the Market”, Holt, NY, 2008
4. Gardner, Daniel “The Science of Fear”, Plume Books, NY, 2009
5. Ariely, Dan, “Predictably Irrational: Revised and Expanded Edition”, Harper Books, NY, 2009
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7. Ostling, Richard and Joan, “Mormon America”, Harper Books, San Francisco, 1999
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12. Chomsky, Noam et al “The Cold War and the University”, The New Press, NY, 1997
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15. Hiatt, Steven, A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hitmen and the Web of Global Corruption”, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, 2007
16. Pilger, John “The New Rulers of the World, Updated”, Verso, London, 2003 and “Hidden Agendas”, The New Press, NY, 1998
17. Rampton Sheldon and Stauber, John “Weapons of Mass Deception”, Jeremy Tarcher/Penguin, NY, 2003
18. Churchill, Ward, “Kill the Indian, Save the Man”, City Lights, San Francisco, 2004
19. Kitty, Alexandra “Don’t Believe It: How Lies Become News”, Disinformation Press, NY, 2005
20. Weiner, Tim “Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA”, Anchor Books, NY, 2008
21. Magdoff, Harry “Imperialism: From the Colonial Age to the Present”, Monthly Review Books, NY, 1978 and “The Age of Imperialism”, Monthly Review Books, NY, 1969
22. Amin, Samir et al “Dynamics of Global Crisis”, Monthly Review Books, NY, 1982 and Accumulation on a World Scale: A Critique of the Theory of Underdevelopment, Vols. I and II, Monthly Review Books, NY. 1974 and “Spectres of Capitalism”, Monthly Review Press, NY, 1998
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25. Zakaria, Fareed “The Post-American World”, W.W. Norton, NY. 2009
26. Szanto, Andras (ed) “What Orwell Didn’t Know: Propaganda and the New Face of American Politics”, Public Affairs Books, NY, 2007
27. Aronowitz, Stanley and Gautney, Heather (eds), “Implicating Empire: Globalization and Resistance in the 21st Century World Order”, Basic Books, NY, 2003)
28. Nye Joseph, “The Powers to Lead”, Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 2008 and “Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics”, Oxford U. Press, NY, 2009
29. Wilford, Will “The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America”, Harvard U. Press, Cambridge, 2008
30. Gorenfeld, John “Bad Moon Rising: How Reverend Moon Created the Washington Times, Seduced the Religious Right and Built an American Kingdom”, Poli Point Press, Sausalito, CA. 2008
31. Abanes, Richard, “One Nation Under Gods: A History of the Mormon Church”, Four Walls Eight Windows Press, NY, 2002
32. Allman, T.D. “Rogue State: America at War with the World”, Nation Books, NY, 2004
33. Fraser, Matthew, “Weapons of Mass Distraction: Soft Power and American Empire”. St. Martin’s Press, NY, 2005
34. Parmar, Inderjeet and Cox, Michael (eds) “Soft Power and U.S. Foreign Policy: Theoretical, Historical and Contemporary Perspectives”, Michael Routledge, NY, 2010
35. Bamford, James “The Shadow Factory”, Doubleday, NY, 2008; “Body of Secrets”, Anchor Books, NY, 2002; “A Pretext for War”;
36. Winks, Robin “Cloak and Gown: Scholars in America’s Secret War”, Collins-Harvill, London, 1987;Bernays, Edward “Propaganda”, IgBooks, Brooklyn, NY, 1928 and 2005